EQUITABLE AND ECO-FRIENDLY?
Planning tools for sustainable mobility
Dr.-Ing. Matthew Bediako Okrah (Alexander Thamm GmbH and Phase 1 mobil.LAB Fellow)
The Interrelationship between Transport, Land Use and Noise
There is a well-established relationship between transport and land use, the so-called “Transport/Land use interaction cycle”. The locations of residents, companies and activities define the origins and destinations of travel demand. On the other hand, (re-)location decisions of households and companies are influenced by accessibility and transport options. A less-studied phenomena is a third interaction with the environment. This presentation deals with road traffic noise as a negative externality, how it is shaped by land-use and transport and how it interacts with land use. Road traffic noise is largely driven by car traffic demand. However, because of the logarithmic dose-response relationship between traffic volume and resulting noise, it is not straightforward to reduce noise exposure.Furthermore, the exposure depends on the place of residence of the population in relation to the location of the roads.As noise is considered as a negative stressor which does not only lead to annoyance and reduced residential satisfaction but also to health-related problems,noisy places experience a drop in demand when compared to quieter locations. This in turn is reflected in property prices in the real estate market. People who can afford it will buy themselves out of noisy areas whereas less affluent households will be left in noisier dwellings, which are partly compensated by reduced prices.This inevitably leads to questions of environmental justice which are partly discussed in the presentation.Finally, a land use scenario and a traffic scenario are presented and examined for their effects on traffic noise in the Munich metropolitan area
Carbon-based accessibility instruments: visual tools for low carbon mobility options
Climate change mitigation represents one of the main challenges of our time and the transport sector is among the largest contributors to continuously increasing global greenhouse gas emissions.Clearly, major action is required by both public and private stakeholders to decarbonize the transport sector. Accessibility instruments are strategic decision-making tools that can support this endeavor in meaningful ways.These tools are able to visualize the catchment area within any given CO2 emission budget and accumulate the spatial opportunities that are accessible within this budget.In doing so, they serve three main purposes. First, they make the consequences of ambitious emission reduction targets tangible in a specific spatial context.Contrary to other planning tools, they put the spot light on the pressing planning issue of reducing transport-related CO2 emissions. Second, they help to plan for low carbon mobility options from an integrated perspective. Carbon-based accessibility analysis is able to highlight needs for interventions in the land use and transport system or assess the impacts of land use and transport interventions on the availability of low carbon mobility options.Finally, carbon-based accessibility instruments have a high communication value. They produce visual and easily understandable outputs, which help to raise awareness among decision makers.Thus, they not only contribute to shaping the land use and transport system, but also shaping decision processes on various levels, from citizens to politicians.Clearly, multiple fields of action need to be combined to tackle the issue of transport-related emissions. Carbon-based accessibility instruments can be applied in combination with other tools and methods in order to enable comprehensive decision-making processes in this context.
Demand And/oR Equity (DARE) Method to Plan Bike-sharing Systems.
Bike-sharing systems (BSS) are known to provide health, environmental, social, and financial benefits. These benefits, however, have not been usually equally distributed among the population with an over-representation of high income and highly educated male, young, and white people. This unequal distribution of benefits is perpetuated when the main goal of BSS is efficiency, as station locations and service areas are prioritized in areas where this segment of the population lives and commutes. Therefore, we developed a heuristic and data-mining-based method (DARE) to weight efficiency and equity in the planning process of BSS. The primary inputs are the predicted potential demand (efficiency) and a spatial deprivation index (equity). Potential demand is predicted using structural equation models(SEM) to help understand the relationship between predictors as well as test and validate the theoretical assumptions.
DARE was applied to a hybrid BSS in Munich, Germany to evaluate the distribution of stations following spatial efficiency and equity criteria. The design was in line with recommendations from guidelines and findings from previous research when spatial efficiency instead of equity was considered in the application. On the other hand, the neediest population was prioritized when spatial equity was considered but central areas were excluded. System designers have now available a decision-making method where fairness is part of the input on the planning process for BSS. Moreover, through this method, the public can know who was prioritized during the planning of a system: potential demand, the population most in need, or both of them.
Assessing Pedestrian Impacts of Future Land Use and Transportation Scenarios
Assessing Pedestrian Impacts of Future Land Use and Transportation Scenarios In the past several years, there is a growing awareness for shaping sustainable urban mobility.Walking,as a low/no-tech mobility, is the most traditional way we have experienced every day. It can reduce energy usage, ease the environmental problem, such as air and noise pollution resulting from motorized transports, and improve public health by a number of chronic diseases. After experiencing the lock down from the global pandemic, the importance of walking as a part of future mobility is more significant. Therefore, it is no surprise that cities tend to put pedestrians at the forefront of future mobility policies. However, planners and policy makers do not often have appropriate tools to address planning questions and to assess the impact of their policies towards meeting their sustainable goals.In this presentation,a sophisticated land use and transport model integrated with pedestrian travel will be presented.To illustrate the potential of the modeling tool to assess pedestrian impacts of future scenarios, we utilize it for the assessment of urban and transportation scenarios for both the Portland Central City area and the Munich City area.It is one of the first to apply the fine-grained pedestrian model in a regional study area for the assessment of various land use and transport policies.